Norbert’s Gambit: A detailed step-by-step guide

**This post may contain affiliate links. I may be compensated if you use them.

Have you ever heard of Norbert’s Gambit? This trick was first made popular by Norbert Schlenker as a way to convert CAD to USD and vice versa while minimizing currency exchange fees. The trick is incredibly handy for people who need to exchange huge amounts of US dollars. For example, you might want to start investing in US listed stocks, or you may be purchasing a home in the US. If you used one of the traditional ways to exchange money, you could end up paying hundreds, if not thousands, of dollars in fees. Obviously, no one wants to do this.

Admittedly, Norbert’s Gambit may sound a bit complicated if you’re a new investor, but it’s actually a very easy process as long as you have the right accounts set up. There’s even an ETF available now with the sole purpose of being used for Norbert’s Gambit, so it’s not like it’s some secret. Here’s how to perform Norbert’s Gambit.

What is Norbert’s Gambit?

Norbert’s Gambit is a way to exchange Canadian dollars and US dollars (or vice versa) without having to pay any foreign exchange fees. This is possible because there are exchange-traded funds and Canadian stocks that trade on both Canadian and U.S. exchanges. The only thing you would pay is any commission fees that your brokerage fees. 

This trick is available to both US and Canadian investors. It can be done in non-registered and registered account. 

How does Norbert’s Gambit work?

When people need to exchange Canadian dollars for US dollars, they usually need to pay an exchange fee of 1% – 4%. While this may not seem like a lot, it can be quite significant. For example, imagine someone selling a vacation home in the U.S. for the equivalent of $500,000 CAD. If they exchanged their money at a bank and get charged a 2.5% fee, that’s $12,500. With Norber’s Gambit, you can avoid fees completely by purchasing Canadian or US-listed ETFs that trade on both exchanges.

Since both ETFs trade on both exchanges, the only difference is the currency. You would basically buy the ETF on one exchange and then get it transferred (journaled) over to the other exchange. By doing this, you’re converting currencies at no cost (minus fees)

How do you use Norbert’s Gambit?

Experienced investors likely wont have many issues performing Norbert’s Gambit. Admittedly, the process may scare off novice investors, but it’s not that difficult. That said, it does require some setup.

  • Open a discount brokerage account with CAD and USD trading accounts
  • In your CAD account, buy ticker symbol DLR which trades in CAD
  • After the order has settled (usually three days), call your brokerage and ask them to journal your DLR shares over to your USD account so they show up as DLR.U
  • Sell your DLR.U shares
  • You’ll now have USD in your USDtrading account
  • Use the funds to buy US stocks or withdraw them in USD if you need it

You might be wondering how this all works. It’s actually a simple process when you think about it. DLR is Horizons U.S. Dollar Currency ETF which is available in both Canadian and US dollars. DLR.TO (sometimes referred to as DLR CA) is the CAD version (traded on the Toronto stock exchange), while DLR.U is the American version. When you journal shares over, all you’re doing is switching the currency. Converting from USD to CAD works in the same way, but you start with DLR.U in your USD trading account.

**With TD Direct Investing, you don’t need to wait to journal your shares over. You can call TD immediately after your purchase has completed. For a full brokerage fee of $43, they can immediately journal over your shares and sell them. This eliminates any currency fluctuations between the time you buy and sell your DLR shares.

Since you’re not technically buying and selling two different stocks on two different exchanges, you’re saving on the foreign exchange fees, which are typically 2.5%

At the time this article was published (April 1, 2022) DLR was trading at $12.60 CAD while DLR.U had a price of $10.08 USD. This spread is actually the difference in the current exchange rate. Since you’re just switching from one currency to another with the same product via a discount broker, you don’t have to pay the exchange fees that banks implement. That said, you do have to pay two trading commissions. Although some brokerages only charge you when you sell, so you might have to pay one fee.

How long does Norbert’s gambit take?

Generally speaking, it takes three days from the time you make your initial trade to complete Norbert’s gambit. Even if you journal things over right away, it’ll still take three days since that’s how long it takes for trades to settle. In some cases, it may take longer, but that’s rare.

Once your money is in your USD account, you can purchase US listed stocks. If your intention is to take the money out for a different purpose, then you would need to transfer your funds to a regular US dollar account first.

How much does Norbert’s gambit save?

How much does Norbert’s gambit saves really depends on how much you’re exchanging. For simplicity, we’ll use the DLR prices outlined above. We’ll also assume you’re buying 1,000 units of DLR since it’s a nice round number.

That works out to a cost of $12,600 CAD for the ETF, but you also need to factor in the $10 brokerage fee (or whatever your discount brokers charge). Your total cost would be $12,610. When you journal things over and sell you’d have $10,070 USD ($10,080 from the sale – $10 brokerage fee).

In this case, $12,610 CAD bought you $10,070 USD.

Now you need to compare that to the foreign exchange rates offered by your bank. I use TD so I decided to punch the numbers in there. On the same date I wrote this article, $12,610 CAD gets me $9,822.40 USD. That’s a difference of $247.60 USD or $299.82 CAD. Clearly, that’s pretty significant.

A better way to look at the savings is the percentage you save. The difference between Norbert’s gambit and TD is about 2.46%. In other words, at the time, TD charged a 2.46% currency conversion fee. Now let’s say you need to exchange $300,000 CAD for USD because you’re buying a home. You would save $7,380 CAD by using Norbert’s gambit. Using Norbert’s gambit is the cheapest way to exchange CAD for USD. The “trouble” you would have to go through to set up accounts would be totally worth it.

Where can I perform Norbert’s gambit?

To perform Norbert’s gambit, you’ll need a discount brokerage account such as:

  • Questrade
  • TD Direct Investing
  • CIBC Investor’s Edge
  • RBC Direct Investing
  • BMO Investorline
  • Scotia iTRADE

As for the account types, they can be performed in the following:

  • Non registered trading account
  • Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP)
  • Tax-Free Savings Account (TFSA)
  • Margin account

Keep in mind that not every brokerage allows you to perform Norbert’s gambit in every account. Also, even if you could do it in your TFSA, you’d pay US taxes on any dividends and interest earned from US stocks. Most people only do Norbert’s gambit in their trading and RRSP accounts.

It’s also worth mentioning that Norbert’s Gambit can be performed with any stock that’s interlisted. For example, CNR trades on the TSX, but CNI is on the NYSE. You could technically use that to do the gambit, but there would be significantly more volatility compared to DLR.

Don’t try to overthink things. Norbert’s gambit should be performed with a specific purpose in mind which is the best way to convert CAD to USD.

Norberts gambit Questrade

So far, in this article, I’ve made the assumption that you know how to make trades in a discount brokerage account. However, I recognize that not everyone has the same experience, so you may need a little extra hand-holding. Let’s say you want to exchange $10,000 in CAD for USD. Using the same rates outlined so far, here are step-by-step instructions to perform Norbert’s gambit in your Questrade account.

  • Go to your CAD account and click order entry
  • Type in DLR (choose DLR CA) and find the ask price (I’m assuming $12.60 here)
  • Figure out how many shares you can buy by taking your amount, and dividing it by the ask price
  • $10,000 / $12.60 = 793 shares (always round down)
  • Unde Quantity, enter 793
  • Under Price type, select limit
  • Under limit price, enter $12.60
  • Under Good ‘til, select day
  • Click buy (note that Questrade does not charge a fee to buy ETFs)
  • Assuming everything was done correctly, your order should fill instantly
  • When your trade settles after roughly three business days, call Questrade and have them journal over your shares
  • When you see DLR.U in your US account, sell your shares
  • You’ll now have $7,983.49 USD (after factoring in the $9.95 commission in your account)

Although I’ve explained Norbert’s gambit in Questrade for you here, it’s really no different from any other discount brokerage. For example, some brokerages might have limit as limit order or limit price as bid price. It’s all sort of the same thing.

The only real difference is the commissions which are typically capped at $10 anyways. Sure, Questrade doesn’t charge you a fee when buying ETFs, but the odds are you’ll only do Norbert’s gambit once or twice a year. I don’t think it matters who you do the gambit with.

Norbert’s gambit USD to CAD

So far I’ve talked about converting Canadian dollars to US dollars, but what if you need to do things the other way? Is Norbert’s gambit the best way to convert USD to CAD? Yup! The process is exactly the same, but you’re just starting things in your US account, so it would look something like this:

  • Deposit/transfer USD into your US trading account
  • Select DLR.U as the ETF you want to buy
  • Choose your quantity, price type and Good ‘til
  • Click buy
  • Wait three days for your trade to settle and call your brokerage to journal the shares over to your CAD account
  • Use or withdraw your Canadian dollars

You may not think that you’ll need to exchange USD to CAD, but it happens more than you realize. Many traders will want to convert USD to CAD when they want to cash out any gains. There are also some people who have sold homes in the US and are looking to bring the funds over to Canada.

Here’s another practical example. As a freelancer, I earn about $40,000 US a year. If I were to just accept the rates from my bank, I’d be losing roughly $1,150 CAD a year to fees.

If you’re changing a few hundred dollars, the exchange rate probably won’t matter much. However, if you have access to USD on a regular basis, you’ll want to minimize your fees when converting to Canadians.

When should Norbert’s Gambit be avoided?

Norbert’s Gambit should only be used if you’re saving more than what you’re paying in fees. If you’re using a brokerage that only charges $10 for selling shares, then the break-even point is about $800. However, if you need to pay $10 for buying and selling, your break-even point is about $1,600.

Since Norbert’s Gambit requires some account set up, it might not be worth it if you need to pay a monthly or yearly fee to keep those accounts active. That said, depending on how much you’re exchanging, opening accounts and then closing them later could be worth it.

Norbert’s Gambit also isn’t ideal for anyone who needs the money immediately. It does take at least three days to complete everything, so it’s not a good choice if you’re looking to exchange money fast.

Is Norbert’s gambit legal?

Some people wonder, is Norbert’s gambit legal? It’s an honest question since you’re essentially circumventing the exchange fees that your bank imposes. Here’s the thing, there’s nothing illegal about the trick. You’re literally swapping one item that trades in CAD for an identical version that happens to trade in USD.

Banks are well aware of Norbert’s gambit and they’re not making any attempt to block it. You’re not doing anything that breaks the terms and conditions of your brokerage, so why would they care? Financial institutions are more than happy to collect the exchange fees from everyone who isn’t aware of how Norbert’s gambit works.

What is DLR ETF?

Horizons US Dollar Currency ETF, or DLR on the ticker, is an ETF created by Horizons for the sole purpose of executing Norbert’s Gambit. There’s literally no other reason to hold the ETF. Why would Horizons do this? Well, they make a small commission on the spread with every trade. DLR itself is an interlisted ETF which means it trades in Canadian dollars as DLR and in US dollars as DLR.U. The price difference between the two is nearly on par with the exchange rate between Canada and the United States.

Using the rates from above, you could take the Canadian price and divide it by the U.S. price to figure out the exchange rate. In this case, it’s 12.60/10.08 which gives you an exchange of 1.25. Currently, Google is showing the USD to CAD exchange rate at 1.26, so DLR is nearly on par as advertised.

What does it mean to journal shares?

Journaling shares simply refers to moving shares from one stock exchange to another. This applies specifically to any interlisted company. Not every discount brokerage supports this and the ones that do require you have both USD and CAD accounts.

Norbert’s gambit alternatives

One thing that many other Norbert’s gambit guides don’t talk about is the fluctuation with the actual exchange rate from the time you buy to the time you sell. If the Canadian dollar increases in value while you’re waiting for your trade to settle, you’d get more USD in the end. On the flip side of things, if the Canadian dollar drops in value, you get less USD. Any gains or losses would be a taxable event.

You probably shouldn’t worry too much about the exchange fluctuation as there’s not much you can do about it. That said, you could use an online exchange company such as OFX, since they’ll be able to give you a quote right away. With that number in hand, you’ll know exactly how much the exchange will cost you.

Another option is Wise (formerly known as TransferWise). Wise is an interesting option as it allows you to set up virtual accounts in most countries.

Now, if you’re just looking to save money on small transactions made in US dollars, you might be better off just using one of the best credit cards with no foreign transaction fees. This won’t give you any physical US dollars, but you’d be saving on the exchange.

Final thoughts

Norbert’s gambit may sound like a complicated procedure, but if you’ve ever bought stocks or ETFs online, it’s really no different. Even if you’re not an experienced investor, the gambit is easy to perform once you have your accounts set up. The hassle to get everything up and running is worth it if you need to exchange a huge amount of Canadian dollars for US dollars or vice versa.

About Barry Choi

Barry Choi is a Toronto-based personal finance and travel expert who frequently makes media appearances. His blog Money We Have is one of Canada’s most trusted sources when it comes to money and travel. You can find him on Twitter:@barrychoi


  1. Les Alex Dorgo on March 29, 2021 at 9:33 AM

    When you did your comparison to TD bank, you should add % saved. if it is 2.5% saving that on a $300,000 vacation home is $7500.

    • Barry Choi on March 29, 2021 at 10:34 AM

      Oh good point, I’m going to add in a line.

  2. John on March 29, 2021 at 8:39 PM

    Hi Barry, I have a u.s. acct with b of America. I would like to move the money into Canada and hold it in a u.s. dollar acct here. Would this technique work? Tia

    • Barry Choi on March 30, 2021 at 5:27 AM

      Hey John,

      If you have USD in a US Bank and you want to move it to a CAD bank without converting it to CAD, you can just perform a WIRE transfer for a flat fee. (you may get charged this on both ends)

  3. Don Morin on April 1, 2021 at 12:27 AM

    Could I use Norbert’s Gambit to exchange my New Zealand dollars to Canadian dollars and what would the savings be. I bank at T.D.

  4. Mari on January 4, 2022 at 8:08 PM

    Is there a daily limit for how much I can purchase at one time?

    • Barry Choi on January 5, 2022 at 6:10 AM



  5. Mike on January 12, 2022 at 1:16 PM

    I’ve done the gbit several times now and have always waited the 3 days, but I don’t understand the wait time for the trade to settle. I can buy and sell other stocks in the same day. What is stopping me from buying DLR, moving it over to my US account and immediately sell DLR.U?

    Thank you,

    • Barry Choi on January 12, 2022 at 1:27 PM


      All stocks require 2 business days to settle. That said, brokerages allow you to purchase other securities with the proceeds right away. You can’t move DLR over right away since you don’t technically own it yet.

      • Mike on January 12, 2022 at 3:18 PM

        Barry, thank you for the explanation.

  6. Stephen on March 2, 2022 at 5:13 PM

    Question about the book value and exchange rate.

    I received my T5008 from RBC DI,

    The book value is not indicated for the Norbert’s Gambit trade.

    There is a note on the T5008 form ***states I have to do the calculations for the book value.

    In my case I’m doing USD to CAD Norbert’s Gambit.

    So I bought 3,000 shares of DLR.U at 10.08

    And Sold 3,000 shares of DLR at 12.19

    So the exchange rate would be 12.19 divided by 10.08

    Exchange rate = 1.2093

    I need the exchange rate to calculate the book value.

    Just confirming if this is the correct way you are all getting the exchange rate.

    Because the DLR.U and DLR trades are happening within mins of each other and on the same day the exchange rate should not change much at all.

    CRA says to use the Bank of Canada daily rate. But if I can calculate the exchange rate I actually paid using the method above. I would assume that would be the most accurate. CRA rep said as long as I use a method that makes sense and can be proven they have no issue.

    So one more thing about the book value.

    So in my example

    3,000 shares DLR.U @ 10.08 = 30,240.00 USD

    Add 9.95 USD commission

    Total 30,249.95 USD is my total cost

    Multiply that number by the exchange rate calculated from above to get the book value in Canadian dollars.

    $30,249.95 X 1.2093 = 36,581.26 CAD

    $36,581.26 is the book in Canadian dollars

    When I sold 3,000 shares DLR @ 12.19 I received $36,570.00

    Then Minus commission of 9.95

    Total $36,560.00

    This is also the amount on the T5008 in box 21.

    So to figure out the Capital gain/loss

    Take the amount in box 21 on T5008 which is the amount I received from the sale of DLR. (36,560.05) CAD minus the book value.

    36,560.05 CAD – 36,581.26 CAD

    = -21.21

    So you can claim a capital loss of $21.21

    Anyone care to confirm if this is accurate

    • Barry Choi on March 2, 2022 at 5:29 PM

      Hey Stephen,

      Since you’re journaling your shares over from one currency to the other, there’s technically no loss in exchange the exchange rate. That’s because DLR is listed on both exchanges.

      However, when you sell, you would report any capital gains or losses at that time. That gain/loss is the difference in the value of the currency from the time you bought to the time you sold. You would see that gain/loss when you sell and it would also appear in your tax documents.

  7. Stephen on March 2, 2022 at 5:53 PM

    Thanks Barry,

    To clarify, the exchange rate does not change in my situation.

    So in the above example, is my calculation of the exchange rate correct?

    The gain/loss is not indicated in my tax documents for this trade. Tax documents only show the sale proceeds and no book value. Hence the reason to have to calculate the exchange rate.

    All the math should be in the example above. Not sure if I did it right or not.

    Thanks for the help.


    • Barry Choi on March 2, 2022 at 5:56 PM

      Hey Stephen,

      As far as I can tell, the math looks right. Seems like there was a minimal currency change between when you bought and sold.

  8. Stephen on March 2, 2022 at 6:00 PM

    Thanks for the feed back Barry. Embarrassing to admit,, but I have spend many hours trying to figure this out.


  9. Paula on May 4, 2022 at 11:06 PM

    Thank you for this article. We will be converting Canadian money into approx. $93k U.S. Dollars and also require $400,000 U.S. dollars. Clearly we need a less expensive way to exchange the two currencies. We have an Investor’s Edge account but it is only RRSP’s. To clarify, we need to set up a non-registered account and an U.S. account to handle the transaction?
    Thank you

    • Barry Choi on May 5, 2022 at 5:59 AM


      Yes, you would need a non-registered CAD and US trading account.

      • Adam on July 26, 2022 at 7:43 PM

        To clarify, why would you need non-registered accts when you said NG can be performed in all account types?

        • Barry Choi on July 26, 2022 at 7:53 PM


          It was just for Paula’s specific example. She stated she had an RRSP account with Investor’s Edge. Since she needed to convert USD that’s not within her RRSP, she would need a CAD and US trading account in a non registered account.

          • Cat on October 23, 2022 at 4:27 AM

            I have been using a mix of VBCE and Norberts Gambit when its over 70k usd i have been using vbce, now i need to exchange 100k usd to cad, would the gambit still be the better deal?

            Usually these forex fees says they give a discount for the exchange depending on the amount.
            But i dont really have an idea of the spread if its “better” than the gambit since the rate moves every min or so
            .. what question should i be asking.
            The great thing with vbce is you can place a market order and like stocks, it will just buy it at your required rate.

          • Barry Choi on October 23, 2022 at 7:27 AM


            Norbert’s Gambit will always be the cheapest since all you’re paying is the trading fee and any fluctuations in the exchange while you’re waiting for the transfer to settle.

            Forex companies such as OFX or VBCE still offer very competitive rates. The advantage is that your rate is locked in when you do the exchange, so you don’t need to worry about any currency exchange fluctuations.

  10. DP on October 17, 2022 at 5:41 AM

    Barry, you mentioned that DLR trades on the Cdn Exchange and DLR.U trades on the US Exchange. I’m seeing both DLR and DLR.U trading on Cdn Exchanges. Has something changed?

    • Barry Choi on October 17, 2022 at 6:03 AM


      Not that I’m aware of. I just did the Gambit last week via TD and used the same method as I listed.

      • DP on October 17, 2022 at 12:02 PM

        Thanks Barry. I’ll call and ask. I just don’t see it on the US side in WebBroker

  11. James on October 24, 2022 at 1:18 PM

    Hi Barry,
    I would greatly appreciate it if you would answer my following question: if I do Norbert gambit, saying, with amount $500,000 instead of $50,000, is there any more risk than what you have mentioned in you article? I‘m guessing that buying that huge amount will drive the ETF’s price up and later selling them will drive the price down. Therefore, the total loss can be greater than directly exchanging with the 2.5% foreign currency exchange fees you mentioned. Am I right? Thank you.

    • Barry Choi on October 24, 2022 at 2:10 PM


      I suppose it’s possible that buying that much of DLR could drive up the price, but people buying DLR are doing it just to exchange currency. No one is doing it in hopes of gains, so the odds of price fluctuations happening are likely minimal. Volume might be an issue, but I’ve never looked into how often DLR is traded on a daily basis.

      If you prefer something instant while knowing exactly what you’ll pay, use someone like OFX.

  12. Catherine on October 25, 2022 at 3:46 PM

    Thanks for clarifying that Barry. Basically, if usd to cad is 1.37 now but by the time i sell it is 1.36 then i incur a loss on my non registered account but the opposite can also be true correct?

    • Barry Choi on October 25, 2022 at 5:24 PM

      Hey Catherine,

      THat’s correct. A capital loss or gain could occur when you eventually settle.

  13. Gordon Prince on December 16, 2022 at 5:10 AM

    I have been doing this for several years using an RBC Direct account. And it works with any dual-listed stock: BCE, RBC, etc. With RBC Direct, I can purchase in one account, then sell the same quantity of shares in the other account 1 minute later. So no market fluctuation risk. Everything settles in 3 days, and the shares automatically journal from the account they were bought in to the account they were sold in.

  14. Marcel Rivest on December 31, 2022 at 12:52 PM

    Is it possible to do the Gambit if you have US$ in one account and you want C$

    • Barry Choi on December 31, 2022 at 2:19 PM


      Yes, you would just to the Gambit in the reserve order. So start in your US trading account with DLR.U

  15. Rivest Marcel on January 1, 2023 at 10:28 AM

    I have only one account in C$ with US$ in it.

  16. Peter on January 29, 2023 at 5:52 PM

    Do you know what causes the gradual but consistent changes in the price of DLR-U?

    2011-2017 10:20 falling to 9.90
    2018-2021 9.90 rising to 10.16
    2021-mid 2022 10.16 falling to 10.04
    mid 2022 on 10.04 rising to 10.21

    EG 10.21 this week is enough to reduce the “apparent” rate (= price of DLR / 10) from around 1.359 to about 1.331.

  17. J on April 21, 2024 at 12:06 AM

    This is a great guide, thanks so much!

    That said, I’ve found the savings to be quite minimal on larger trades. In using Wealthsavvy’s guide to Norbert’s Gambit, I’ve calculated that an exchange of $120,000 USD would net just ˜$90 CAD more with Norbert’s Gambit than it would at Wise, and ˜$92 CAD more doing Norbert’s Gambit than it would at Knightsbridge. Although this is still savings (cash is cash), this seems like relatively small savings compared to what I had been expected from Norbert’s Gambit, unless I’m missing something?

    • Barry Choi on April 21, 2024 at 3:57 PM

      Hey J,

      According to the wise website (on April 21), changing US$120,000 to $CAD would cost you US $530 and you’d get CAD $164,265.28

      However, according to, US$120,000 gets you 164,913.12.

      That means when you factor in Wise’s fee and spread, there’s a difference of almost CAD $700.

      With Norbert’s Gambit, you get almost the exact rate plus $20 – $43 in trading fees so the difference is likely closer to CAD $500 – $600

      • J on April 22, 2024 at 11:06 AM

        Very good point. I note that I found Wise to be misleading, as they show their fees at the end, not the beginning. This definitely changed the equation here. Agreed that Norbert’s Gambit appears to be approximately ~$600-650 CAD savings.

        • Barry Choi on April 22, 2024 at 11:09 AM


          Agreed. I use Wise and it can definitely be misleading. I need to pay a fee to load funds into my account (even the same currency) and then I pay a fee/currency exchange when I need to exchange money. It’s still cheaper than major banks, but it is indeed a bit misleading.

          If I need to change a small amount like $2,000 I’ll probably use Wise for convenience. But at $5K+, I’m doing Norbert’s Gambit every time.

Leave a Comment

Get a FREE copy of Travel Hacking for Lazy People

Subscribe now to get your FREE eBook and learn how to travel in luxury for less